EQUINE ARTICLES

Thrush – Treatment and Prevention

Thrush is a common hoof infection that is not defined solely by the organism responsible for the disease; rather, it is diagnosed by the typical appearance and symptoms of the affected hoof anatomy. Horses kept in wet or unsanitary conditions for prolonged periods of time are susceptible to Thrush, but those kept in pristine conditions can also develop this infection. It may occur when the hoof’s ...

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Thrush is a common hoof infection that is not defined solely by the organism responsible for the disease; rather, it is diagnosed by the typical appearance and symptoms of the affected hoof anatomy. Horses kept in wet or unsanitary conditions for prolonged periods of time are susceptible to Thrush, but those kept in pristine conditions can also develop this infection. It may occur when the hoof’s natural self-cleaning ability is compromised by excessive confinement, inappropriate farriery, chronic lameness, or nutritional deficit. In any case, treatment should begin swiftly to avoid complicated cases that can lead to permanent lameness. Thrush is common, and every horse owner should be aware of how to treat it – preferably, how to prevent it from occurring.

Thrush affects the frog (the triangular soft area on the underside of the hoof) and the sulci (the grooves that surround and transect the frog). Horses with deep sulci or abnormally shaped hoofs may be more susceptible. These structures will contain black, pasty, foul smelling, necrotic material when examined and cleaned. Anaerobic bacteria and fungi are commonly cultured from Thrush infections and are considered opportunistic pathogens. The type of organism identified rarely alters the treatment protocol except possibly in very advanced and resistant cases. In the early stages, horses are not lame from Thrush, although the disease may be a complication of other causes of lameness. As the infection invades the deeper structures of the foot, the condition will certainly become painful.

Horses kept in damp conditions, and those denied regular exercise, are most likely to develop Thrush. Any condition which interrupts the normal flexion of the foot, and thus the regular decontamination and oxygenation of the hoof, may also lead to this condition however. Poor diet may be another contributing factor. The idea that Thrush occurs only in unsanitary conditions has long been disproven.

Mild cases of uncomplicated Thrush can be treated by the horse owner. Advanced cases, and those situations where the condition is secondary to another cause of lameness, warrant the consultation of a veterinarian. The affected hoof must first be debrided of all necrotic and infected tissue. A farrier may be helpful in this effort. The horse should be removed from damp, confined conditions and allowed to exercise normally. Stimulating hoof flexion through natural movement will help to increase blood supply to the frog, decrease the accumulation of debris, and oxygenate the wound. If there is an anatomical defect of the hoof, the expertise of a veterinarian and farrier will help to identify and correct the problem and prevent recurrence.

The hoof will need daily cleaning and medicating in the treatment of Thrush. This is best done with an ample supply of fresh water and a stiff-bristle brush. Antiseptic soap like betadine or chlorhexadine is recommended. The hoof should be rinsed well and thoroughly dried after cleaning. It will require a clean work space to accomplish this. After the hoof is blotted and air-dried, a number of topical Thrush remedies are available that can then be applied to reduce bacterial colonization and improve healing. Applying these medications to a hoof that remains impacted with necrotic material will not be effective.

When treated promptly and aggressively, mild Thrush responds well and a full recovery is expected. If there are underlying causes left unresolved, healing will be prolonged, and re-infection is likely. Progressive cases will require veterinary care and carry a more guarded prognosis.

Prevention involves routine inspection of the hooves along with proper trimming as needed. The horse should not be kept confined more than necessary, and stables should be kept clean and dry. Hoof picks and brushes can be used to remove accumulated debris, but if the debris is persistent, a farrier or veterinarian may be needed to assess the anatomy and health of the foot.

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Vaccination Recommendations for Horses

Prevention of disease is the foundation for health. No medical treatment, or even cure, for an illness, is more important than that which may help us avoid disease in the first place. Vaccines (immunizations) are preeminent in maintaining good health, without which our horses are susceptible to numerous disease-causing pathogens.

Here are some of the equine diseases for which approved vaccines...

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Prevention of disease is the foundation for health. No medical treatment, or even cure, for an illness, is more important than that which may help us avoid disease in the first place. Vaccines (immunizations) are preeminent in maintaining good health, without which our horses are susceptible to numerous disease-causing pathogens.

Here are some of the equine diseases for which approved vaccines are available. Your veterinarian will help you to decide which of these are significant threats in your area and which vaccination schedules you should institute in your herd.

Core Vaccines


Core vaccines are considered to be part of every horse’s regular vaccination regimen. The diseases they prevent pose significant health risks and are endemic to every part of the U.S., regardless of the use of the animal or housing situation. The vaccines may also be required by law where there is a risk of zoonoses, or possible transmission of disease from animals to humans.

Tetanus

Cause:
Clostridium tetani (spore-forming, toxin-producing bacteria) by contamination and infection of a wound, surgical incision, or umbilical stump in foals

Symptoms: Third eyelid prolapse; classical grinning expression with teeth exposed, ears turned backwards, and nostrils flared; rigid paralysis of the neck and face muscles; and tetanic spasms (especially after stimulation with loud sounds), where limbs are further extended than normal, neck is arched back, and tail is pointed straight out

Prognosis:


Guarded to poor once neurological symptoms have occurred. 50 -70% fatality rate despite treatment

Vaccination Protocol:

Broodmares before foaling
Adults boostered annually after primary series
At time of any penetrating injury or pre-surgically if last booster was more than 6 months prior
Foal series according to mare’s vaccine status

Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE/WEE)


Cause:
Arbovirus of the familyTogaviridae spread by mosquito bites

Symptoms:


Anorexia, fever, hyper-excitability (pacing), depression, blindness, head tilt, inability to rise

Prognosis:
20-40% fatality rate (WEE); 70-90% fatality rate (EEE)

Vaccination Protocol:

Broodmares before foaling
Adults boostered annually after primary series especially prior to vector (mosquito) season
6 month boosters in endemic areas
Foal series according to mare’s vaccine status

*Note: Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) vaccine is administered to horses in the southern states. Consult a veterinarian on risk / recommendations for your area.

Rabies


Cause:
Rabies virus from bite wounds of other mammals

Symptoms:
Ataxia (incoordination), aggression, depression, circling, fear, tremors or seizures, trouble swallowing, hyperesthesia (increased sensitivity to stimuli)

Prognosis:


100% fatality rate

Vaccination Protocol:

Broodmares before foaling (extra-label use);
Prior to breeding
Adults boostered annually
Foal series according to mare’s vaccine status

West Nile Virus

Cause:


Arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae spread by mosquito bites

Symptoms:


Ataxia (incoordination), anorexia, fever, depression, inability to rise, wandering, sweating, teeth grinding, swallowing difficulty, tremor / seizure activity, facial paralysis

Prognosis:
Guarded (35% fatality rate); poor for recumbent horses due to secondary complications; persistent symptoms despite survival

Vaccination Protocol:

Broodmares annually and before foaling
Adults boostered annually after primary series especially prior to vector (mosquito) season
4-6 month boosters in endemic areas
Foal series according to mare’s vaccine status

Non-Core Vaccines


Other vaccinations are given based upon the risk of exposure to a particular disease in your horse’s specific environment or in an area to which the animal may travel. The factors that may play a role in determining whether or not your horse should receive the immunizations will include geographic region, exposure to other horses and animals, immune health, and breeding status.

Rhinopneumonitis

Cause:
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4)

Symptoms:


Nasal discharge, fever, cough, anorexia, lymph node enlargement, spontaneous fetal abortion, hind-limb ataxia (incoordination), urinary incontinence, fecal retention, dog sitting position, inability to rise

Prognosis:


Good, guarded, or poor depending upon progression of symptoms, aggressiveness of treatment, and secondary complications

Vaccination Protocol:


Recommended for at risk herds and known exposures, to stop viral shedding and disease transmission to stable-mates. Very short duration and limited protection. The abortion strain vaccination is given to the pregnant mare at 5, 7 and 9 months of gestation.

Influenza Virus

Cause:
Influenza type A virus

Symptoms:
Nasal discharge, fever, cough, lymph node enlargement

Prognosis:
Generally good; guarded if secondary bacterial infection (pneumonia) occurs

Vaccination Protocol:
Recommended series of vaccinations followed by semi-annual boosters for horses that travel, before exposure to other horses, and for known exposures within a herd

Potomac Horse Fever

Cause:
Neorickettsia risticii – rickettsial organism that originates in parasites of freshwater snails and insects which may be ingested by the horse by accident

Symptoms:
Reduced appetite, anorexia, colic, fever, depression, laminitis, diarrhea, spontaneous abortion

Prognosis:

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Humane Equine Euthanasia

Humane euthanasia is a preferred alternative to unnecessary suffering when a horse has a fatal injury or an unmanageable disease. It is the greatest and most difficult responsibility of being a horse owner to be sure that the animal does not suffer an agonizing end of life. It is also difficult to know when euthanasia is justified. While there are numerous factors to be considered when assessing treatment options for various ailments (side-effects, expense, rate of success, etc.), the only real measure to indicate that it is time to euthanize is...

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Humane euthanasia is a preferred alternative to unnecessary suffering when a horse has a fatal injury or an unmanageable disease. It is the greatest and most difficult responsibility of being a horse owner to be sure that the animal does not suffer an agonizing end of life. It is also difficult to know when euthanasia is justified. While there are numerous factors to be considered when assessing treatment options for various ailments (side-effects, expense, rate of success, etc.), the only real measure to indicate that it is time to euthanize is prognosis. Prognosis is a prediction of the most likely outcome of an illness. It may be influenced by what treatment options are available to the horse owner, but in the end prognosis will be what determines the most humane course of action. Once a decision has been made to euthanize, the next question will be how to end life humanely. The process itself must not cause unnecessary suffering.

The veterinarian will be most helpful and experienced in determining the prognosis for the horse fallen ill. For acute injuries and sudden onset diseases, the doctor will assess the animal for level of pain, underlying factors that predisposed the horse to the problem, the risk to other exposed horses in the herd, and likely secondary complications. In chronic conditions, factors that play a role in determining prognosis are whether the horse is responsive to therapy, the ability to control pain on a long-term basis, side-effects that have occurred or are likely to occur, and the horse’s ability to eat, drink, and rise unassisted.

Expense is a factor in either situation and cannot be overlooked as a justification for humane euthanasia. Some owners may be in denial about whether they can truly afford a long-term and complicated treatment regimen. This may result in the horse receiving less than adequate relief from suffering, which will be regretted after the owner realizes that the end was inevitable. Expense should be considered as well for its negative impact on the care that is provided for the other animals on the farm, not to mention the horse owner and his or her family. The owner should not be ashamed to recognize this fact.

Some of the common terms used by the veterinarian to describe the horse’s prognosis are good, fair, guarded, poor, and grave. A guarded prognosis may warrant an attempt at treatment, which may turn out to be successful; however, the owner is forewarned to be on the lookout for a possible decline in the animal’s response to therapy. At that point, alternate treatments if available should be explored, or euthanasia should be considered. A poor prognosis may indicate that palliative care (relief from pain) may be administered while the owner makes arrangements for burial or cremation, but the actual disease or injury will not be addressed per se. A grave prognosis would mean that immediate humane euthanasia is the only option.

Humane euthanasia is performed by one of three acceptable methods: lethal injection, gunshot, or penetrating captive bolt gun. Each requires a careful technique to ensure that the horse does not suffer needlessly. There are pros and cons to all three methods, which are described below:

Lethal injections require the animal to be completely unconscious, usually requiring anesthesia. Some drugs formulated for the sole purpose of euthanasia combine a barbiturate that induces coma, along with a drug that causes heart and lung paralysis which leads to brain death. If administered properly, the animal feels absolutely nothing and dies in its “sleep”. Most owners prefer this method because it is peaceful and bloodless when everything works as intended. Sometimes, illness in the horse such as reduced circulation can cause an increased time for the drugs to take effect. The animal may twitch or convulse before expiring, which is obviously upsetting for the owner to see. Some animal care professionals that are unlicensed to carry controlled substances have access to only the drugs that only stop the heart and lungs. These should not be used on a conscious horse, as death may be cruel and cause suffering.

Horses that are euthanized by the lethal injection method must be disposed of in such a manner as to not allow accidental exposure of domestic animals and wildlife to the carcass. Immediate disposal by deep burial or cremation is mandatory. Check with local ordinances about burial regulations.

Euthanasia by gunshot seems atrocious to some owners, as guns are perceived as tools of violence. However, if performed properly this method is just as humane as a lethal injection. It is also sometimes the only method available (i.e.: in emergencies, no vet available, no anesthesia available, burial or cremation will be delayed). The drawback to this method is primarily the emotional distress for the horse owner and family witnessing the event, as it is very loud and sudden. The horse may be fully conscious at the time which is also upsetting to observers. If performed correctly however, euthanasia by gunshot is extremely quick (avoiding stress and suffering in the horse), very reliable (little movement afterward, no chance of drug failure), mostly bloodless, and very humane. The horse feels nothing as brain function ceases immediately. Guns can be very dangerous to the operator, bystanders, and other animals if handled improperly.

A description is given below on the proper method to administer euthanasia by gunshot. This is intended ONLY to prepare a horse owner for an emergency situation, where the expertise of a veterinarian is not available or if time does not permit.

Gun type:

A handgun or long rifle may be used, but a handgun is preferred if no one is available to assist. A rifle is also more likely to create a significant exit wound which will not be bloodless. With a handgun, the owner can hold the lead in one hand and the gun in the other. With a rifle, an assistant can hold the lead at a safe distance behind the gun operator. In either case, the gun is held at point-blank range (but never up against the head), and never from a long distance.

Bullet type:

The type of bullet is critical. A soft-nosed, lead bullet or hollow point may be used, but full metal jacket bullets are to be avoided. The first two types will expand, rapidly slowing upon impact, and transfer all of their energy to the tissue, causing immediate death. Full metal jacket bullets will pass through the animal without expansion, and may put other people and animals even at great distances at risk if the bullet were to ricochet. There is the possibility of the horse taking a long time to expire if the wrong type of bullet is used.

Bullet caliber:

Nothing smaller than a .22 caliber long-rifle bullet (.22LR) should be used to euthanize the horse. Some people say the .22LR may not have enough energy when fired from a handgun barrel, but from a rifle it would develop the speed and energy necessary. The .32 cal, 9 mm, or .38 spl are also acceptable calibers.

Bullet placement:

The bullet should enter the animal at exactly the correct location to ensure humane treatment. Never shoot the animal between the eyes or in any other location besides the following. If an imaginary “X” is drawn from the base of each ear to the top of the opposite eye, the bullet will enter where the lines intersect. The gun barrel must be held perpendicular to the skull at the point of entry, which will cause the bullet path to point straight down the center of the neck.

Technique:

Hold the horse’s lead in order to keep its head from moving, but keep your lead hand behind the gun barrel at all times. The end of the barrel should be held 1 to 2 inches from the horse, never pressed up against the skull. If possible, the horse should be on soft ground to prevent a ricochet should the bullet pass through the animal. In any case, every one involved – people, other horses, dogs, etc. – everyone should be behind the gun except for the horse to be relieved of its misery.

The horse will usually buckle straight downward, but be prepared that it could fall forward, injuring the owner. Also, if it is possible to blindfold the horse, it may help to reduce anxiety of having a shiny object waved in front of its face. A blanket can be used for this purpose, but be sure that shot placement is exact.

Keep in mind that the horse will have to be removed from the location where it was euthanized, so consider the use of equipment if the horse is able to move before performing the procedure.

No one should attempt to use a gun in this situation that is not completely comfortable with their use beforehand.

A penetrating captive bolt gun accomplishes the same immediate brain death induced by gunshot. This method also requires careful technique to ensure a humane treatment of the horse. Most bolt guns are designed to be placed firmly against the skull, but otherwise placement and precautions are nearly identical to euthanasia by gunshot. Bolt guns are designed specifically for euthanasia and have the benefit of being supplied with an instruction manual. Follow the manufacturer’s directions carefully to avoid improper application of the device and needless suffering in the animal.

Unacceptable methods of euthanasia which would be inhumane (and may be considered animal torture or abuse) include:

Blunt trauma to the head or any part of the horse’s body

Injection of any chemical or drug not labeled specifically for euthanasia

Electrocution

Poisoning – by ingestion or otherwise

Gunshot other than as described above

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Treatment and Prevention of Arthritis in Horses

Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD), is a very common cause of lameness in horses. Arthritis simply means inflammation in the joints, but OA and DJD refer to a progressive condition wherein the articular cartilage, or padding between the bones, begins to deteriorate at a rate faster than it would normally be repaired. As a result, the bones undergo changes that...

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Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD), is a very common cause of lameness in horses. Arthritis simply means inflammation in the joints, but OA and DJD refer to a progressive condition wherein the articular cartilage, or padding between the bones, begins to deteriorate at a rate faster than it would normally be repaired. As a result, the bones undergo changes that restrict normal range of motion within the joint. The condition is painful, although it may not be obvious by the time that these degenerative changes have begun to take place. Eventually, the condition can be debilitating. The further the disease progresses, the more difficult it will become to treat.

Articular cartilage is maintained by chondrocytes, cells responsible for producing collagen and proteoglycans which form a highly shock-absorbing and smooth surface over which the bones will glide. During normal wear and tear, this cartilaginous matrix is constantly replenished by the cells, protecting the ends of the bones from damage caused by the stress of everyday activity. Healthy cartilage also maintains accurate tolerances between the bones, determining a specific path in which the joint can flex and extend (normal range of motion).

Degenerative changes allow the rate of cartilage deterioration to surpass the rate of reconstruction. The joint becomes unstable as the shape of the cartilage becomes deformed. Bones respond to increased pressures and joint instability by producing osteophytes, also called bone spurs. These abnormal projections may eventually calcify and harden in an attempt to stabilize the joint, albeit reducing the overall range of motion and being prone to fracture.

Osteoarthritis can occur as a result of an injury, chronic trauma to the joints (heavy exercise demands), congenital limb deformities, and improper shoeing. It can also occur without explanation in an otherwise healthy horse. The disease is very common in geriatric animals. Initial symptoms may be as subtle as a stumble or shorter stamina during a typical activity. As the disease progresses, the owner may notice a shorter stride length, a limp, overall exercise intolerance, one or more swollen joints, heat in the joints, and muscle atrophy (wasting) due to inactivity. Asymmetrical hoof wear may be another sign of OA.

At the earliest signs of arthritis, a complete physical exam should be performed by the veterinarian, who may take x-rays to confirm the arthritic changes within the affected joint. The degree of change on the x-ray is not always proportional to the severity of the animal’s symptoms; nonetheless, it may help the veterinarian determine how aggressive to be with treatment. Horses are good at concealing pain in order to avoid attracting the attention of predators, yet an x-ray may show significant disease. It is also very important to rule out other causes of lameness, especially infectious diseases.

There is no standard protocol for treating OA in horses; and unfortunately, there is no cure. There are numerous drugs, supplements, and therapies that can be employed to try to alleviate pain and slow the progression of the disease. Ideally, these are used in combination to provide multiple modes of action, and early in the onset of OA, in order to achieve the best results for the longest period of time. Below are some of the most common:

NSAIDs:

In many cases, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are chosen as a first approach because of their effectiveness in treating minor pain and swelling. They also have a relatively good margin of safety when dosed properly. Long term use and over-dosage is associated with gastric ulcers, bleeding tendencies, diarrhea, and liver and kidney damage. There are injectable and topical preparations of these drugs, the topicals being safer (but less effective) as they are only minimally absorbed and metabolized.

Corticosteroids:

Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory medications that also suppress immune function. They are very effective for the treatment of OA when injected directly into the inflamed joint (intra-articular injection). They reduce swelling and inhibit white blood cell activity within the joint that is responsible for producing inflammatory enzymes. These drugs may be given systemically as well, but the effectiveness does not usually increase unless arthritis is widespread, and side effects are much more likely when given in this manner. Ill-effects from long term use include adrenal gland and immune suppression, laminitis, gastric ulceration, fungal infections, and liver damage. Side effects seen from steroids injected into a joint would include joint infections (although minimal with good technique).

Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycans (PSGAGs) and Hyaluronic Acid (HA) formulations:

PSGAGs and HA are thought to protect cartilage by inhibiting certain enzymes associated with degradation and increasing the activity of chondrocytes. Available as an intra-articular injection, and as an intramuscular injection, they have few systemic side-effects. Increased bleeding tendency is usually not seen at the recommended dosage but is possible, along with swelling at the injection site, and possible infection when given intra-articularly.

Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Protein (IRAP)

Interleukin-1 is one of the inflammatory enzymes responsible for cartilage deterioration. IRAP intercepts this enzyme before it can bind to joint tissues and cause damage. Rather than a manufactured drug, IRAP is incubated and concentrated in a sample of the arthritic horse’s blood using special equipment. The blood is then centrifuged so that the IRAP-rich serum can be collected and packaged into sterile containers. IRAP serum is administered intra-articularly every 7 to 10 days for 3 treatments.

Oral Supplements and Homeopathic Remedies

There are thousands of over-the-counter supplements on the market for treating arthritis – for horses as well as humans. Many people dose their pets with their own “natural” remedies expecting similar results and margins of safety. There are also famous (and infamous) homeopathic remedies using all sorts of ingredients and incantations. Keep in mind that, while some may really work and really work wonders to relieve arthritic pain, none are regulated or standardized according to quality or quantity of the supposedly contained active ingredients. Glucosamine, chondroitin, hyaluronic acid, methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), and avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) are all unregulated compounds appearing in numerous supplements that have proven noteworthy in clinical tests when dosed to horses as unadulterated ingredients at therapeutic levels. The problem however, may be finding over-the-counter products that actually contain a significant amount of bio-available ingredients. Many supplements, while apparently safe, pass through the body un-utilized. Then again, some brands seem to work miracles for certain horses. Use discretion when selecting these alternative therapies. Consult a veterinarian if there is any question as to the safety of any product.

In any case, prevention of osteoarthritis is a more lucrative endeavor. Once arthritic change begins within the joints, the best a clinician can do is to attempt to alleviate pain and hopefully slow the progression of joint deterioration. Young animals should be assessed for confirmation abnormalities to prevent the onset of arthritic disease. Proper shoeing is vital, and avoiding repetitive stresses to joints in working and competing animals will help to prevent the onset of progressive degenerative changes to the articular cartilages. When arthritis does occur, early intervention will be much more effective than any treatment protocol instituted once the horse becomes debilitated.

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Vesicular Stomatitis

Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is a contagious disease caused by a virus. It is seen mainly west of the Mississippi, especially in the Rocky Mountains and Southwest regions. VS is prevalent in Mexico, Central and South America. In horses, VS appears as blisters in the mouth and nose which may lead to crust formation on the muzzle and excessive drooling. Most horses will become depressed and lose...

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Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is a contagious disease caused by a virus. It is seen mainly west of the Mississippi, especially in the Rocky Mountains and Southwest regions. VS is prevalent in Mexico, Central and South America. In horses, VS appears as blisters in the mouth and nose which may lead to crust formation on the muzzle and excessive drooling. Most horses will become depressed and lose appetite. Ulcers may also form on the genitals, udder, and coronary bands of the feet. The symptoms last about 10 days. VS rarely causes death in horses, and most recover fully without any long-term complications.

Transmission of VS is by exposure to respiratory and oral secretions (or any other bodily fluid), sexual contact, and possibly by biting insects (unproven in the field). Fomites are also possible routes of infection. Fomites are inanimate objects like clothing, tack, equipment, grooming supplies, troughs, and feed buckets that may carry the virus from one horse to another. No approved vaccine for VS is available, so proper sanitation, quarantine procedures, and insect control measures are all required to prevent an epidemic.

Vesicular Stomatitis is a reportable disease, meaning a suspected case must be brought to the attention of a veterinarian immediately. The veterinarian must in turn notify the state health department within 24 hours. This is because the clinical symptoms associated with VS are very similar to those seen in Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) which affects swine and cattle. FMD has been eradicated from many parts of the world, and it is strictly monitored for resurgence into these areas because of its economic impacts on the meat industry. Even though VS is not a huge threat to horses, it is a huge threat to the cattle and swine industry.

USDA inspectors will verify VS in the laboratory and assist with proper quarantine measures if the disease is suspected. Quarantine remains in place for 30 days beyond the resolution of any clinical symptoms seen in affected animals.

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Texas West Animal Health

16367 South FM 4,

Santo, TX 76472

Phone. 940-769-2222

Fax. 866-632-3365

Email. texaswestvet@gmail.com